Voice Assistants: (Physical) Device Use Perceptions, Acceptance, and Privacy Concerns

Ali Farooq, Debora Jeske, Paul Van schaik, Michael Moran

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Using UTAUT2 model and privacy concerns, the study identifies the factors that predict users’ and non-users’ behavioral intention to continue or start using physical voice assistant devices in the future as their prominence is increasing significantly in both work and home locations. Users and non-users of voice assistants were recruited via an online survey in both Ireland and Finland. The final sample (N = 119) included 54 users and 65 non-users of voice assistants. Group differences and predictive effects were investigated using independent samples t-tests, analysis of covariance, and multiple regression. Users differed significantly from non-users on a number of UTAUT2 model variables such as effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, hedonic motivation, private value, and privacy concern. Users’ behavioral intention to continue using voice assistants was stronger than non-users’ behavioral intention to start using such voice assistants. Multiple regression results show that, for non-users, both effort expectancy and privacy concerns appear to impact their intention to adopt voice assistants – in contrast to participants who are already users. However, social influence, facilitating conditions, price value, effort, and performance expectancy were not significant predictors of behavioral intention. The findings suggest that the continued or future use of voice assistants can be predicted by assessing both users’ and non-users’ expectations regarding the degree to which they are or expect to become habituated to the use of voice assistants, and enjoyment and value derived from these devices. The findings add to the emerging evidence-base about users’ and non-users’ perceptions, acceptance, and concerns regarding using voice assistants and highlights the importance of context in the adoption, acceptance, and perceptions of both user groups.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Role of Digital Technologies in Shaping the Post-Pandemic World
Subtitle of host publication21st IFIP WG 6.11 Conference on e-Business, e-Services and e-Society, I3E 2022, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, September 13–14, 2022, Proceedings
EditorsSavvas Papagiannidis, Eleftherios Alamanos, Suraksha Gupta, Yogesh Kumar Dwivedi, Matti Mäntymäki, Ilias O. Pappas
Number of pages14
ISBN (Electronic)9783031153419
Publication statusPublished - 13 Sept 2022
EventThe Role of Digital Technologies in Shaping the Post-Pandemic World: 21st IFIP WG 6.11 Conference on e-Business, e-Services and e-Society - Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
Duration: 13 Sept 202214 Sept 2022


ConferenceThe Role of Digital Technologies in Shaping the Post-Pandemic World
Abbreviated titleI3E 2022
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom
CityNewcastle upon Tyne


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