Wax Precipitation and Deposition Risk: Issues on Ethics and Professionalism

Nura Makwashi, Tariq Ahmed, Stephen Arome Akubo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The deposition of wax on pipelines causes problems that affect oil production rate and the facilities. Several preventive and control measures were employed to manage this problem. However, there is no single technique that is hundred per cent effective for different fields. Therefore, this article provides new interpretation of the associated risk of the problem – such as the impact of ethical and professionalism on wax deposition. It sheds more light on the need for the implementation of sound engineering practices during pipeline design, construction, and operations to reduce wax deposition risks and the associated remediation costs. The laboratory case study revealed that crude oil properties (such as wax appearance temperature (WAT), pour point (PP), and density), standard operating conditions and procedures must be accurate and continuously updated throughout the production life cycle. The results showed that maintaining crude oil temperature above wax appearance temperature (30°C) and at a relatively high flow rate particularly within the turbulent flow region (7, 9 and 11 l/min) provides a safe and uninterrupted production of waxy crude oil (δwax ≈ 0 mm).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)16-26
Number of pages11
JournalNigerian Journal of Technological Development
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jun 2022
Externally publishedYes

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