The devastating impact of COVID-19 on businesses has led to the redefinition of workforce resilience. This study hence explores workforce resilience factors that will be important in the post-COVID-19 era. It investigates whether these factors perform differently in the manufacturing vs. the service sector and in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) vs. large firms. Sixty-five firms were studied in Malaysia and analyzed through Rasch modelling. The results indicate that three workforce resilience factors (positive thinking, sense of responsibility, and emotional control) are difficult to overcome in the manufacturing sector. Regarding the SMEs and large firm contexts, six workforce resilience factors (positive thinking, differentiation, degree of involvement, sense of responsibility, cognitive processes, and innovation) are complicated for SMEs. In comparison, two workforce resilience factors (work–life balance and decision-making) are difficult for large firms. Capitalizing on these findings, managers in various organizations (manufacturing vs. service and SMEs vs. large firms) can adopt different strategies to leverage workforce resilience post-COVID. Moreover, government agencies can use these findings for policy-making when leading post-COVID-19 projects and initiatives.
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