This qualitative study applied the LMX theory to compare how the quality of leader-member dyadic exchange typifying head teachers’ leadership styles and relationship with superiors explained the difference in adequacy of education provided by Government and private secondary schools in Central Uganda. Following interpretivism, interview data was collected from 34 participants (teachers, head teachers and superiors) selected purposively from five Government and five private schools. Data was thematically analysed using a hybrid of Yin’s (2015) framework and template approach. Findings indicate that educational adequacy differed between the selected schools, not because they were government or private, but according to the quality of the dyadic LMX that typified their head teachers’ leadership styles and relationship with superiors. Schools where superior-head teacher relationship and head teachers’ leadership styles were characterised by high-quality LMX provided better education compared to those where this LMX quality was low. Specifically, schools where this relationship and leadership styles were epitomised by LMX quality described as benevolent autocracy, permissive democracy, accommodativeness, transactional, transformational, motivational mutual trust, civil teamwork, collaboration, and task-oriented communication encouraged provision of sufficient education. In contrast, schools where head teachers’ leadership styles were typified by LMX quality described as laissez faire, bureaucracy, and unsupportive communication made followers feel too distant to provide adequate education. The same occurred in schools where the superior-head teacher relationship whose LMX quality was typified by absolute autocracy, directive democracy, intransigence, paternalism, coercive formal communication, and egocentric-aggrandizing communication. These findings contribute new knowledge that the dyadic LMX quality typifying head teachers’ leadership styles and head teacher-superior relationship is among the factors that explain the adequacy of secondary education provided in central Uganda. Therefore, school leaders intending to provide adequate education should pay attention to ensuring high quality dyadic LMX.